Project Management


What's a project?

1. What should I do if I have an idea but no funds to implement it?

Evaluate your idea

Ask yourself:

  • Who am I representing – private, public o civil sector?

  • Who could be interested in my idea? Can my idea help to resolve someone's problem or is tailored for making a profit?

  • Problem/Needs analysis: to what problem my idea provide a possible solution? (E.g. creates new job positions? Improves educative process in vocational schools?)

  • How much money do I need and for what it will be spent?

Present your idea

2 types of presentation:

  • Business plan/study to be presented in the bank to get a LOAN for profit-making idea

  • Project application – for non profit project of EU general interess or national funding – GRANT

2. A project is...


Administrative mechanism used to pursue the objectives of the European/National policies.

It aims to provide solutions to key challenges on a strategic level.

A Programme defines:

  • strategic priorities and indicative actions,

  • financial allocations,

  • summarising management and control systems.

If you are looking for funds from a specific programme you need to check if your idea is in line with programme priorities.

If yes – present your idea as a project.

A Project is a set of activities aimed at achieving specified objectives within a defined time-period and budget.

A project should have clearly identified:

  • stakeholders and beneficiaries;

  • problems to be addressed or opportunities materialised;

  • implementation, monitoring and evaluation arrangements;

  • benefits which exceed expected costs and are likely to be sustainable;

  • the specific objective of the project, in order to provide a possible solution for a specific problem in line with the programme general objectives and priorities.

3. How to get the funds?

👉 EU Funding Programmes

Here you can find a list of the funding programmes implemented through the 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework, divided by heading and cluster.

So, what to do?

  1. Read carefully the Call documents of the chosen programme & check the eligibility criteria

(e.g. Erasmus plus programme)

  1. Your institution and your idea are eligible? Great!

OK, now… Let's prepare the project proposal!

.. but how ❓❓

Project Cycle Management

1. Logical Framework Approach

The Logical Framework Approach is an analytical process and set of tools used to support project planning and management. It provides a set of interlocking concepts which are used as part of an iterative process to aid structured and systematic analysis of a project or programme idea.

It is useful to distinguish between the LFA, which is an analytical process (involving stakeholder analysis, problem analysis, objective setting and strategy selection), and the Logical Framework Matrix (LFM) which, while requiring further analysis of objectives, how they will be achieved and the potential risks, also provides the documented product of the analytical process.

2. Stakeholder analysis

Any individuals, groups of people, institutions or firms that may have a significant interest in the success or failure of a project (either as implementers, facilitators, beneficiaries or adversaries) are defined as "stakeholders".

The key questions asked by stakeholder analysis are:

"Whose problems or opportunities are we analysing?” ;

"Who will benefit or loose-out, and how, from a proposed project intervention?".

    1. Stakeholders: Individuals or institutions that may – directly or indirectly, positively or negatively – affect or be affected by a project or programme.

    2. Beneficiaries: These are those who benefit in whatever way from the implementation of the project. A Distinction may be made between:

  • Target group(s): The group/entity who will be directly positively affected by the project at the Project Purpose level. This may include the staff from partner organisations;

  • Final beneficiaries: Those who benefit from the project in the long term at the level of the society or sector at large, e.g. “children” due to increased spending on health and education, “consumers” due to improved agricultural production and marketing.

  • Project partners: Those who implement the projects in-country (who are also stakeholders, and may be also a "target group").

3. Problem Analysis

The Problem Analysis identifies the negative aspects of an existing situation and establishes the "cause and effect" relationships between the identified problems.

This analysis involves 3 main stages:

1️⃣ Definition of the framework and subject of analysis;

2️⃣ Identification of the major problems faced by target groups and beneficiaries (What is/are the problem/s? Whose problems?);

3️⃣ Visualisation of the problems in form of a diagram, a 6 steps path called “Problem Tree”:

💡 Openly brainstorm problems which stakeholders consider to be a priority

🗝 From the identified problems select an individual key problem

🔗 Look for related problems to the starter problem

🧶 Establish a hierarchy of cause and effects – the guiding question is "What causes that?"

🔀 Connect the problems with cause-effect arrows – clearly showing key links

🌐 Review the diagram and verify its validity and completeness

4. Objective Analysis

The Analysis of Objectives is a methodological approach employed to:

  • Describe the situation in the future once identified problems have been remedied;

  • Verify the hierarchy of objectives and illustrate the means-ends relationships in a diagram.

5. Strategies Analysis

The type of questions that need to be asked and answered at this stage might include:

👉 Should all the identified problems and/or objectives be tackled, or a selected few?

👉 What are the positive opportunities that can be built on (i.e from the SWOT analysis)?

👉 What is the combination of interventions that are most likely to bring about the desired results and promote sustainability of benefits?

👉 How is local ownership of the project best supported, including the development of the capacity of local institutions?

👉 What are the likely capital and recurrent costs implications of different possible interventions, and what can realistically be afforded?

👉 What is the most cost-effective option(s)?

👉 Which strategy will impact most positively on addressing the needs of the poor and other identified vulnerable groups?

👉 How can potential negative environmental impacts best be mitigated or avoided?

6. Matrix Logframe

The results of the stakeholder, problem, objectives and strategy analysis are used as the basis for preparing the Logical Framework Matrix.

7. Scheduling: Activity, Resources and Cost Schedules

An Activity Schedule is a format for analysing and graphically presenting project activities. It helps to identify their logical sequence, expected duration, any dependencies that exist between activities, and provides a basis for allocating management responsibility. With the Activity Schedule prepared, further specification of resources and scheduling of costs can be undertaken.

A Checklist for preparing an Activity Schedule:

✅ 1. List Main Activities

✅ 2. Break Activities Down into Manageable Tasks

✅ 3. Clarify Sequence and Dependencies

sequence - in what order should related Activities be undertaken?

dependencies - is the Activity dependent on the start-up or completion of any other Activity?

✅ 4. Estimate Start-up, Duration and Completion of Activities

✅ 5. Summarise Scheduling of Main Activities

✅ 6. Define Milestones

✅ 7. Define Expertise

✅ 8. Allocate Tasks Among Team

EU-Mind School - PM - BUDGET EXAMPLE.docx